For integration into existing equipment, IP67 (enclosure) or OEM version are available (without enclosure).

The delivered package includes all the necessary cables for quickly connect receiver(s) to peripheral devices (PC).

GUI provides a software tool for easy setup, configuration, and data logging or viewing

Watts and dBm are units of measurement used to express the power of a signal in a telecommunications system.

Watts (W) is a unit of power that is commonly used to express the output power of radio transmitters and the power consumption of electrical devices. It is a unit of power that is defined as the amount of energy consumed or produced per second.

dBm (decibel-milliwatts) is a unit of measurement used to express the power level of a radio frequency (RF) signal in relation to one milliwatt (mW). It is an absolute unit of measurement that expresses the power level of a signal in decibels (dB) above or below one milliwatt.

The formula for converting watts to dBm is: dBm = 10 * log10 (power (in watts) / 1mW)

For example, if the power level of a signal is measured to be 50 watts, the power level in dBm can be calculated as: dBm = 10 * log10 (50 / 1) = 43.98 dBm

It’s important to note that dBm is an absolute unit of measure, while dB is a relative unit. It’s also important to note that dBm is only used in telecommunication, where as watts can be used in any field, including energy and electricity.

GNSS measurements are code and carrier phase pseudoranges, SNRs, Doppler.

Raw IMU data are raw accelerometer, raw gyroscope, temperature.

Autonomous mode is a basic method of GNSS positioning, also known as standalone, absolute or SINGLE mode for Position, Velocity, Time (PVT) calculation. While using this method, the PVT (navigation solution) is obtained without usage of any external data (sources of augmentation or correction).

So, autonomous GNSS does not depend on receiving data via secondary data channels, and from this point of view, is reliable and more accessible.

SBAS mode allows improved the performance of GNSS receivers by regional Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (WAAS, EGNOS, GAGAN, MSAS, SDCM and other SBAS-compatible services).

PPP mode is a high accurate positioning mode. Current version of RTCM-SSR corrections supports so-called floating PPP, i.e. PPP with float ambiguities. The typical convergence time is between 20-35 minutes. PPP mode requires the use of dual-frequency measurements for estimation ionospheric delay, thus the use of dual-frequency antennas is a must for using PPP mode. The PPP convergence time depends on the quality of SSR corrections, satellite geometry, atmospheric conditions. The current version of RTCM SC-104 standard supports only GPS and GLONASS navigation systems.

RTK rover mode is a differential positioning mode that requires a set of measurements received from the reference station (base station). Building the differences of measurements between the rover receiver and the reference station allows the rover receiver to effectively decrease the influence of the delays associated with ionosphere and troposphere as well as to get rid of the error related to satellite clocks. The position accuracy achievable by the receiver(s) depends on the baseline length, quality of GNSS measurements received from the reference station, atmospheric conditions, multipath environment etc.

RTK base mode assumes generation of GNSS measurements along with information about coordinates of the reference station and antenna type. In RTK base mode, the reference station generates the following RTCM messages: MSM7, 1005/1006, 1007/1008, 1230.

GNSS jamming can be detected through RF spectrum monitoring, GNSS signal quality monitoring, and crowd-sourced detection techniques.

Jamming works by broadcasting a stronger signal on the same frequencies used by GNSS signals. This can easily be achieved because GNSS signals, by necessity, are relatively weak by the time they reach the Earth’s surface from the orbiting satellites.

GPS consists of three segments: space, control, and user. Over 30 satellites in orbit send signals to Earth. Control stations ensure the satellites’ health and accuracy, and users utilize the signals for precise positioning.

To calculate dBm to watts, you can use the following formula: Watts = 10 ((dBm – 30)/10)
This formula is based on the fact that dBm is a logarithmic measure of power, relative to a reference power level of 1 milliwatt (mW). To convert from dBm to watts, you simply need to use the inverse logarithm, which is the power of 10.
For example, if you have a signal level of -20 dBm, you can calculate the equivalent power in watts by plugging that value into the formula:
Watts = 10 ((-20 – 30)/10) = 10 (-50/10) = 10 (-5) = 0.00001 = 0.1 mW
It’s worth noting that dBm is commonly used in radio frequency (RF) measurements, where it’s used to express the power level of a signal relative to 1 milliwatt. It’s a dimensionless unit and will not change with the system or the units.

To calculate the frequency of a wavelength, you can use the formula: frequency = speed of light / wavelength. The speed of light is constant and is approximately 299,792,458 meters per second. So, for example, if you have a wavelength of 500 nanometers (nm), the frequency would be: 299,792,458 m/s / 500 x 10^-9 m = 599,584,916 Hz. This means the wave oscillates 599,584,916 times per second.

To determine the wavelength from a given frequency, you can use the formula wavelength = speed of light / frequency. The speed of light is a constant value of approximately 3 x 10 8 meters per second. To calculate the wavelength, divide this value by the frequency in hertz. For example, if the frequency is 5 x 10 14 Hz, the wavelength would be 3 x 10 8 meters per second / 5 x 10 14 Hz = 0.006 meters or 6 x 10 -3 meters.

To convert watts to dBm, you can use the following formula: dBm = 10 * log10 (power in watts / 1 watt). For example, if you have a power of 10 watts, the conversion to dBm would be 10 * log10 (10 / 1) = 10 * log10 (10) = 10 * 1 = 10 dBm. It’s important to note that dBm is an absolute unit of power, whereas dB is a relative unit of power, which describes a ratio of two powers.

To find the frequency (measured in hertz) from the wavelength (measured in meters), you can use the formula: frequency (Hz) = speed of light (m/s) / wavelength (m) The speed of light is approximately 3 x 10^8 meters per second, so you can plug that value into the formula and solve for the frequency. For example, if the wavelength is 0.01 meters, the frequency would be: 3 x 10^8 m/s / 0.01 m = 3 x 10^10 Hz This is the formula for electromagnetic waves in vacuum, for other mediums the speed of light should be replaced by the speed of light in that medium.

To find the wavelength of a wave with only the frequency, you can use the equation: wavelength = speed of light / frequency. The speed of light is a constant value of approximately 3 x 10^8 meters per second. Simply divide the speed of light by the frequency to find the wavelength in meters. Please note that it is important to always use your own words and ideas when writing, and to properly cite any sources you may use. Plagiarism is a serious academic offense and can have serious consequences.

Yes, the GPS service is provided free of charge for civilians by the U.S. government. However, users might need to invest in specific devices or applications to access the service.

Multi-constellation and multi-frequency receivers are capable of calculating PVT by receiving satellite signals broadcast by multiple GNSS in multiple frequency bands.

The use of multi-frequency receiver is the most effective way to eliminate ionospheric delay in position computation.

Kosminis Vytis’ multi-constellation receiver(s) has access to signals from GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou, Galileo and NavIC constellations as well as to SBAS (EGNOS, WAAS, GAGAN, MSAS etc.). The use of several constellations leads to the fact that a larger number of satellites are visible, i.e. If the signal is blocked due to the operating environment, there is a high probability that the receiver can simply pick up a signal from another constellation, ensuring continuity and reliability of the GNSS solution.

Newton(s) simultaneously uses all supported GNSS in the navigation solution and raw measurements collection, additionally allowing the user to enable/disable GNSS constellations for tracking (user selectable GNSS constellations).

Inertial Navigation System (INS) is used to calculate the Position, Velocity and Orientation of a platform (object).

The Kosminis Vytis’ INS includes two main components: Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensor and Computational Unit. The IMU is a sensor based on a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) consisting of a 3-axis accelerometer and a 3-axis gyroscope. Computational Unit provides the processing of raw IMU data. These relative measurements (INS) can accumulate drift errors over time. Therefore, INS is combined with GNSS (GNSS+INS) to provide reliable, highly accurate and high update rates positioning and orientation (attitude) in the most challenging environments even during GNSS outages.

In the Kosminis Vytis’ GNSS-aided INS receiver(s), the GNSS data and IMU data are fused by an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) using a loosely coupled integration algorithm.

Initialization Methods are available (user-selectable):

–   coordinates are from own antenna, velocities are considered equal to zero, roll and pitch are from accelerometer, the course (yaw) will determine itself in the process;

–   coordinates are from own antenna, velocities are considered equal to zero, roll and pitch are from accelerometer, the course (yaw) is given by the user;

–   all parameters are derived from the user command.

Inertial receiver(s) setting up is significantly simplified with the Lever Arm functionality.

Satellites broadcast their position and exact time on radio frequencies. GPS uses L1, L2, L5 for civilian purposes and L3, L4 for governmental systems. M-code is a military-specific signal.

Some anti-jamming techniques include null steering, beam steering, adaptive antennas, and direct power control. More advanced methods involve GNSS signal encryption and authentication, Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS), and cognitive radio techniques.

GNSS jamming can disrupt several sectors including aviation, maritime, automobile, telecommunications, and finance. Beyond these sector-specific implications, GNSS jamming can pose broad societal risks related to public safety, national security, and the economy.

Jamming GNSS signals is illegal in many countries. Various international regulations exist that prohibit the use, manufacture, and sale of jamming devices. There are also various standards relating to GNSS anti-jamming technologies.

Jamming GNSS signals is illegal in many countries. Various international regulations exist that prohibit the use, manufacture, and sale of jamming devices. There are also various standards relating to GNSS anti-jamming technologies.

An Anti-Jamming Antenna is a type of antenna specifically designed to resist and mitigate the effects of jamming signals. These jamming signals are intentional disruptions, aiming to interfere with the functionality of your communication or navigational systems.

GNSS jamming is the disruption of GNSS signals due to interference by other stronger signals broadcasted on the same frequency. This can lead to unreliable positioning data or a complete loss of GNSS signal reception.

GNSS, short for Global Navigation Satellite System, is a network of satellites that transmit signals that enable users to determine their location and time, irrespective of their geographical location.

GPS, or Global Positioning System, is a satellite-based system that provides accurate positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) measurements worldwide.

In essence, anti-jamming technology in GPS receivers, also known as GPS anti jamming, provides a protective layer against disturbances in GPS signals. This can be crucial in environments such as civil aviation, where inadvertent interference may disrupt crucial GPS signals.

GNSS describes all satellite constellations in orbit, while GPS is one of those constellations. Other examples include GLONASS and BeiDou.

The future of GNSS will likely involve more precise and reliable positioning, requiring robust anti-jamming techniques. As technology progresses, anti-jamming techniques are expected to become more sophisticated and effective, involving advancements in fields like artificial intelligence and machine learning.

Mars, also known as the fourth planet from the sun, has long been called the red planet due to its distinct red color. This color is caused by the iron oxide, or rust, on the planet’s surface.