For integration into existing equipment, IP67 (enclosure) or OEM version are available (without enclosure).

The delivered package includes all the necessary cables for quickly connect receiver(s) to peripheral devices (PC).

GUI provides a software tool for easy setup, configuration, and data logging or viewing

Watts and dBm are units of measurement used to express the power of a signal in a telecommunications system.

Watts (W) is a unit of power that is commonly used to express the output power of radio transmitters and the power consumption of electrical devices. It is a unit of power that is defined as the amount of energy consumed or produced per second.

dBm (decibel-milliwatts) is a unit of measurement used to express the power level of a radio frequency (RF) signal in relation to one milliwatt (mW). It is an absolute unit of measurement that expresses the power level of a signal in decibels (dB) above or below one milliwatt.

The formula for converting watts to dBm is: dBm = 10 * log10 (power (in watts) / 1mW)

For example, if the power level of a signal is measured to be 50 watts, the power level in dBm can be calculated as: dBm = 10 * log10 (50 / 1) = 43.98 dBm

It’s important to note that dBm is an absolute unit of measure, while dB is a relative unit. It’s also important to note that dBm is only used in telecommunication, where as watts can be used in any field, including energy and electricity.

GNSS measurements are code and carrier phase pseudoranges, SNRs, Doppler.

Raw IMU data are raw accelerometer, raw gyroscope, temperature.

**Autonomous** **mode** is a basic method of GNSS positioning, also known as standalone, absolute or SINGLE mode for Position, Velocity, Time (PVT) calculation. While using this method, the PVT (navigation solution) is obtained without usage of any external data (sources of augmentation or correction).

So, autonomous GNSS does not depend on receiving data via secondary data channels, and from this point of view, is reliable and more accessible.

**SBAS mode** allows improved the performance of GNSS receivers by regional Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (WAAS, EGNOS, GAGAN, MSAS, SDCM and other SBAS-compatible services).

**PPP** **mode** is a high accurate positioning mode. Current version of RTCM-SSR corrections supports so-called floating PPP, i.e. PPP with float ambiguities. The typical convergence time is between 20-35 minutes. PPP mode requires the use of dual-frequency measurements for estimation ionospheric delay, thus the use of dual-frequency antennas is a must for using PPP mode. The PPP convergence time depends on the quality of SSR corrections, satellite geometry, atmospheric conditions. The current version of RTCM SC-104 standard supports only GPS and GLONASS navigation systems.

**RTK rover mode** is a differential positioning mode that requires a set of measurements received from the reference station (base station). Building the differences of measurements between the rover receiver and the reference station allows the rover receiver to effectively decrease the influence of the delays associated with ionosphere and troposphere as well as to get rid of the error related to satellite clocks. The position accuracy achievable by the receiver(s) depends on the baseline length, quality of GNSS measurements received from the reference station, atmospheric conditions, multipath environment etc.

**RTK base mode** assumes generation of GNSS measurements along with information about coordinates of the reference station and antenna type. In RTK base mode, the reference station generates the following RTCM messages: MSM7, 1005/1006, 1007/1008, 1230.

This formula is based on the fact that dBm is a logarithmic measure of power, relative to a reference power level of 1 milliwatt (mW). To convert from dBm to watts, you simply need to use the inverse logarithm, which is the power of 10.

For example, if you have a signal level of -20 dBm, you can calculate the equivalent power in watts by plugging that value into the formula:

Watts = 10 ((-20 – 30)/10) = 10 (-50/10) = 10 (-5) = 0.00001 = 0.1 mW

It’s worth noting that dBm is commonly used in radio frequency (RF) measurements, where it’s used to express the power level of a signal relative to 1 milliwatt. It’s a dimensionless unit and will not change with the system or the units.

Multi-constellation and multi-frequency receivers are capable of calculating PVT by receiving satellite signals broadcast by multiple GNSS in multiple frequency bands.

The use of multi-frequency receiver is the most effective way to eliminate ionospheric delay in position computation.

Kosminis Vytis’ multi-constellation receiver(s) has access to signals from GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou, Galileo and NavIC constellations as well as to SBAS (EGNOS, WAAS, GAGAN, MSAS etc.). The use of several constellations leads to the fact that a larger number of satellites are visible, i.e. If the signal is blocked due to the operating environment, there is a high probability that the receiver can simply pick up a signal from another constellation, ensuring continuity and reliability of the GNSS solution.

Newton(s) simultaneously uses all supported GNSS in the navigation solution and raw measurements collection, additionally allowing the user to enable/disable GNSS constellations for tracking (user selectable GNSS constellations).

Inertial Navigation System (INS) is used to calculate the Position, Velocity and Orientation of a platform (object).

The Kosminis Vytis’ INS includes two main components: Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensor and Computational Unit. The IMU is a sensor based on a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) consisting of a 3-axis accelerometer and a 3-axis gyroscope. Computational Unit provides the processing of raw IMU data. These relative measurements (INS) can accumulate drift errors over time. Therefore, INS is combined with GNSS (GNSS+INS) to provide reliable, highly accurate and high update rates positioning and orientation (attitude) in the most challenging environments even during GNSS outages.

In the Kosminis Vytis’ GNSS-aided INS receiver(s), the GNSS data and IMU data are fused by an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) using a loosely coupled integration algorithm.

Initialization Methods are available (user-selectable):

– coordinates are from own antenna, velocities are considered equal to zero, roll and pitch are from accelerometer, the course (yaw) will determine itself in the process;

– coordinates are from own antenna, velocities are considered equal to zero, roll and pitch are from accelerometer, the course (yaw) is given by the user;

– all parameters are derived from the user command.

Inertial receiver(s) setting up is significantly simplified with the Lever Arm functionality.